Coastal Revision

Complete the crossword, then click on "Check" to check your answer. If you are stuck, you can click on "Hint" to get a free letter. Click on a number in the grid to see the clue or clues for that number.

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1. Waves that break at a rate of ten or less per minute where each wave is able to run up the beach and drain back again before the next wave arrives
3. Formed when a joint between a sea cave and the land surface above the cave becomes enlarged and air can pass through it. As water flows into the cave, air is expelled through the pipe like joint, sometimes producing an impressive blast of air or spray which appears to emanate from the ground.
7. As cliffs become eroded down to beach level they appear to migrate inland. The remains of the former cliffs form a ...
9. A narrow ridge of material ( sand or pebbles ) attached to the mainland at one end and terminating in the sea.
10. When a wave breaks against a cliff it causes air ,trapped within cracks, to suddenly become compressed. As the water retreats the air is allowed to expand, often explosively. Repeated expansion and contraction of the cracks leads to the break up of the surrounding rock.
12. Waves breaking at a rate of more than ten per minute so each wave is able to run up the beach but unable to drain back again before the next wave arrives.
13. An area of land jutting out into the sea.
14. This is a form of wave erosion. Pebbles, boulders and rocks are thrown against the cliff face by breaking waves. This causes undercutting of the cliff and leads to the breakup of both the cliff and the objects being thrown against it.
15. The return movement of the water, back down the beach.
16. The process whereby rock particles wear down through collisions with other rock particles. This often occurs when pebbles are thrown against cliffs, boulders or other pebbles, causing them to shatter and break.
17. A current taking water away from the beach and out into deeper water.
18. A bar linking an island to the mainland.
21. The margin of the land.
22. When a non-glaciated highland coast becomes submerged, the valleys fill with sea water. As the area becomes flooded the coast becomes indented and higher parts of the surrounding land may become islands. Plymouth Sound and Southampton Water are examples
23. This distance of open water over which the wind can blow and form waves.
26. The mouth of a river where fresh water and sea water mix, and tides have an effect.
27. The daily movement of the sea as it covers and exposes the area between the high tide and low tide marks.


2. Coastal areas which have become lowered below current sea level. The cause is almost always a rise in sea level in consequence of ice melting since the last ice age.
4. The movement of water in a breaking wave as it moves up the beach.
5. When caves, which have developed on either side of a headland, join together they form a natural...
6. When a natural arch collapses, the remaining upright section forms a...
8. Very similar to a spit. It is a ridge of sand or shingle which forms across the mouth of a river, the entrance to a bay or harbour. It is usually parallel to the coast.
11. Type of drift caused when waves break on to a beach at an angle, material is pushed up the beach at an angle by the swash, but pulled back down the beach by the backwash at ninety degrees to the coast. In consequence, material is slowly moved along the coast, in the direction of the waves.
19. A gently sloping deposit of sand, pebbles or mud, deposited along the coast.
20. When a spit extends across the mouth of a river, to the extent that it causes the river to become diverted along the coast, an area of water is created separated from the sea by a narrow strip of land.
21. A steep, and usually high, rock face found at the edge of the land where it meets the sea.
23. A glaciated coast, with deep valleys, flooded by the sea
24. A weakness, such as a joint, is enlarged by wave action, finally creating a tunnel which follows the line of weakness.
25. A wide indentation into the land by the sea, protected on each side by a headland.



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